Language | Tenses | Dashes | Numbers | Statistics | Symbols | Italicisation | Units | Dates | Time | Abbreviations and acronyms | Geographic nomenclature | Text | Title | Author | Address | Abstract | Conclusions | Appendixes & Supplementary material | Footnotes | Equations | Tables | Figures | References | References in the text | Reference list | Proofs.

Detailed Instructions to Authors

It is expected that the authors make the data underlying published articles available on request. Any impediments to data sharing should be brought to the attention of the editors at the time of submission.

Ethical compliance: Details of animal experimentation permission, or its equivalent along with the name of the institution that granted permission for the study should be given in the paper. We also recommend that authors familiarize themselves with e.g., "Guidelines for the treatment of animals in behavioural research and teaching" (Animal Behaviour 83: 301–309), and AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals.


The entire manuscript (incl. figures and tables) should be converted into PDF and sent by e-mail as one PDF file along with a properly-completed submission form directly to the Editorial Office. For details please select 'SUBMISSION' from the menu above.

Revised or final versions of manuscripts

When sending a corrected/finalised version of a manuscript, use short filenames including the article ID number always ending in appropriate extensions added by the programme with which the files have been created. Do not use the article title for a filename. The article (i.e.,  text, tables, figure captions) should be sent as MSWord .doc or .rtf file. Before saving (e.g. MSWord), remove all comments and accept all track changes. See HERE for details on figure preparation and graphic file formats. As a reference, a PDF file of the entire article should also be provided.

Use either British or American English consistently throughout the text. Change the language settings for the document accordingly. Write in a clear style and preferably avoid the use of passive voice. Instead, the pronouns I (we), me (us), and my (our) should be used thus indicating the responsibility of the author(s) towards the study. The authors bear full responsibility for the quality of the language. If English is not your first language, make sure that the manuscript is checked by a native English speaker preferably familiar with the subject and terms used in the paper. We routinely check the language of all accepted manuscripts and if we find it to be inadequate, manuscripts are returned for further corrections. Certain elements of the manuscript layout that are requested in the instructions below — but not present in the published articles — are necessary to facilitate the typesetting process.

Tenses [top]

In scientific writing, only two tenses — present simple and past simple — are normally used. So-called 'perfect tenses' (e.g. present perfect) should be avoided. Thus, there are the following rules that should be observed:

Dashes [top]

Numbers [top]

Symbols [top]

Italicisation [top]

Units [top]

Dates [top]

Time [top]

Abbreviations and acronyms [top]

Geographic nomenclature [top]

Text [top]

Tables [top]

Detailed instruction as to how tables should be prepared and saved are available HERE (PDF file, Acrobat Reader 7 or higher needed for viewing and printing). Other requirements to be considered are:

Figures (photographs, computer-generated images and scanned drawings) [top]

Detailed instruction as to how figures should be prepared and saved are available HERE. Other requirements to be considered are:

References [top]

The references should be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. If an article has not been read by the author(s) but its conclusions found in another publication (secondary source), it may be cited in the text only as follows: e.g. Miller's (1972) results as cited in Ashworth (1996) .... In the reference list, however, only the secondary source (i.e. Ashworth 1996) can be given.

Proofs [top]

The corresponding author will receive by e-mail proofs (PDF file) of the article. Errors caused by editorial or linguistic alterations will be corrected free of charge. Other errors, especially if their correction affects the layout, may be corrected for a fee. We do not assume responsibility for misinterpretation of illegibly marked corrections. Annotated PDF file should be returned to the Editorial Office exclusively by e-mail within 48 hours of their arrival. Errors found after the proofs had been returned may not be corrected.