|Language | Tenses | Dashes | Numbers | Symbols | Italicisation | Units | Dates | Time | Abbreviations and acronyms | Geographic nomenclature | Text (Title | Author | Address | Abstract | Appendices | Footnotes | Equations | Tables | Figures and drawings | Photographs | Colour illustrations | References | References in the text | Reference list) | Proofs.|
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It is expected that the authors make the data underlying published articles available. Any impediments to data sharing should be brought to the attention of the editors at the time of submission.
When sending a corrected/finalised version of an accepted manuscript, use short, meaningful filenames always ending in appropriate extensions added by the programme with which files have been created. The manuscript ID number provided by us or the surname of the first author are recommended for a filename. Do not use the article title for afilename. The article (i.e. the text, tables, figure captions) should be provided as MSWord .doc or .rtf files. Before saving text files (e.g. MSWord), remove all possible comments and accept all Track changes. Save word-processor files in .rtf or MSWord .doc format. See below for the graphic file formats. As reference, a PDF file of the entire article should also be provided.
Use either British or American English consistently throughout the text. Change the language settings for the document accordingly. Write in a clear style. Avoid the use of passive voice. The pronouns I (we), me (us), and my (our) should preferably be used and thus reflect the responsibility of the author(s) towards the study. The authors bear full responsibility for the quality of the language. If English is not your first language, make sure that the manuscript is checked by a native English speaker, preferably somebody familiar with the subject and nomenclature used. We routinely check the language of all accepted manuscripts and if we find it to be inadequate, manuscripts are returned for further corrections.
Certain elements of the manuscript layout that are requested here but not present in the printed articles are necessary to facilitate the typesetting process.
In scientific writing, only two tenses present and (simple) past are normally used. So-called `perfect tenses' (e.g. present perfect) should be avoided. Thus, there are the following `tense' rules that should be observed:
- Established knowledge (previous results) should be given in the present tense;
- Description of methods and results in the current paper should be in the (simple) past tense;
- Presentation (e.g. 'Fig. 1 shows the studied plant') is given in the present tense;
- Attributions (e.g. Jones (1995) reported that ...) are given in the (simple) past tense.
- A hyphen (the shortest "-") is used for example in hyphenation and compound words,
- An en-dash (""; indicated in a manuscript with two hyphens "--") is chiefly used as a minus in subtraction (5 2 same as five minus two; NOTE: spaces before and after the dash) or in ranges of values or dates (25 same as from two to five; NOTE: no spaces before and after the dash),
- An em-dash (the longest ""; indicated in a manuscript with three hyphens "---") is chiefly used for the separation of an explanatory and digressive element of a sentence or in references.
- Always use decimal points, not commas.
- Always use leading zeros in decimal fractions.
- In long numerals (five and more digits), the digits should be marked off in groups of three by spaces (not commas!), starting from the left (e.g., 15 369).
- Numbers from 1 to 10 (also ordinals) in a text should be written out (not 5 but five).
- One-letter symbols (normal, in subscript or superscript) representing numerical values (mathematical or statistical variables) must always be italicised.
- Multi-letter symbols (normal, in subscript or superscript) representing numerical values (mathematical or statistical variables) are never italicised.
- Vectors are set in boldface italic.
- Matrices are set in boldface but not italics.
- Usage of a multiplication symbol is not recommended. If, however, its presence in an equation is required for reasons of clarity please use 'x' instead of a dot.
- Other symbols (abbreviations) are not italicised.
- Check that the same symbol does not have multiple meanings (e.g., P = phosphorus and P = significance level or N = nitrogen and N = number of samples).
- Improper typesetting of symbols may result in misinterpretations.
- Latin names of genera and lower taxa (e.g., Salmo trutta).
- Words which are originally not English (e.g., in vitro).
- Ship (vessel) names.
- Titles of books.
- For italicisation of symbols see above.
- Only SI system units should be used (with some exceptions e.g., 1 µm not 10--6 m).
- In composite units, use numbers in superscript instead of divisions (e.g., 30 m s--1 not 30 m/s). A unit should be given in parentheses () not in brackets  or after a comma.
- The above style should be used consistently throughout the entire article (also in figures and tables).
- If units follow axes titles in figures or tables, they should be given in parentheses '()' not brackets '' or after commas.
- Dates should be written according to the following format: day.month.year (e.g., 12 Dec. 1972 or 12 December 1972 or 12.XII.1972, NOT December 12, 1972).
- Months should be written in full (e.g., January), abbreviated (e.g., Jan.) or expressed with roman numerals (January "I", February "II" and so on).
- Years should never be abbreviated (eg. 2003 not 03).
- The 24-hour system should exclusively be used. The day begins at midnight, denoted as 00:00 (0000 hrs), and ends at 23:59 (2359 hrs).
Abbreviations and acronyms [top]
- Each abbreviated word should end in a full stop (e.g., Professor = Prof., Volume = Vol. species nova = sp. nov.).
- There is no punctuation used in acronyms unless the English grammar rules dictate otherwise.
Geographic nomenclature [top]
- Always use internationally recognised and existing names. In questionable cases, refer to the Times Atlas of the World or Merriam-Webster's Geographic Dictionary to make sure that a name you intend to use is listed in their indexes, and its spelling is correct. Use of coordinates (latitude and longitude) is strongly recommended.
- Use exclusively your word processor's NORMAL style settings throughout the entire manuscript (default font size 12 points, no indentation, no boldface, no capitalisation, left justified, without multiple spaces or tabulators, or other unusual formatting).
- Insert a blank line before each element of the text (headings, subheadings, paragraphs, tables and so on)
- Remove section and page breaks from the text.
- Number chapter headings as follows:
- Chapter headings (Introduction, Material and methods, Results, Discussion and other headings) are numbered decimally starting with "1.". Abstract, References and Acknowledgements, are not numbered.
- Sub-chapter headings should be numbered e.g.: "1.1.", "1.1.1.", and so on, depending on how many levels of sub-chapters you have in your article.
- THE NUMBERING OF CHAPTERS AND SUB-CHAPTERS SERVES ONLY EDITORIAL PURPOSES AND WILL NOT APPEAR IN PRINT, HENCE DO NOT REFER TO PARTS OF YOUR OWN ARTICLE USING THESE NUMBERS.
- Use the Symbol font for Greek letters.
- Graphics (except for equations) should not be placed within the text file.
- Refer to tables and figures parenthetically.
- Title: Never in capital letters or boldface, not centred; short version of the title (max. 50 letters) should also be provided.
- Author: First names in full (other initials, if any) and surnames (James T. Brown, not J. T. Brown) should be given.
- Address: As complete as possible (including e-mail). Each author's affiliation should be identified with numbers in subscript.
- Abstract: Should consist of only one paragraph of up to 150 words. References to literature are not allowed in abstracts.
- Appendices: If there is only one appendix it can be referred to in the text as 'Appendix' without the number. Otherwise, appendices should be numbered.
- Footnotes: They are allowed only in tables (rarely in the text).
- Equations: Each equation occupies a separate line. Place an equation's number on the right-hand side e.g.: N = 0.3Wln(a + b) (1). Equations should be referred to as "Eq.", followed by the appropriate number. Please remember that there is only limited space for equations (column width); therefore, if equation is unusually long, it should be split in two or more parts connected with operators. Equations embedded in the text should preferably be written with either MSEquation Editor of MathType.
Detailed instruction as to how tables should be prepared and saved are available HERE (PDF file, Acrobat Reader 7 or higher needed for viewing and printing). Other requirements to be considered are listed below.
- Vertical lines in tables are not allowed.
- Tables should be comprehensible without reference to the main text.
- Do not place tables within the text. They should be saved in separate files or placed at the end of the text file.
- A TABLE SHOULD NOT BE DIVIDED INTO PARTS OR SECTIONS IDENTIFIED WITH LETTERS. THE PARTS SHOULD BE JOINED OR EACH SECTION OF SUCH A TABLE SHOULD BE PRESENTED AS A SEPARATE TABLE.
- Tables should fit an A4-sized page, preferably in portrait.
- All tables should be referred to in the text in the proper numerical order (e.g., the first reference to Table 2 cannot precede the first reference to Table 1).
- Refer to tables parenthetically; e.g. '... (Table 1)'. 'Table 1 shows ...' type statements should always be avoided.
- IF YOU REFER TO TABLES PUBLISHED ELSEWHERE, THE REFERENCE SHOULD BE FOLLOWED BY 'table' (note that the lowercase t should be used).
Figures and drawings [top]
Detailed instruction as to how figures should be prepared and saved are available HERE (PDF file, Acrobat Reader 7 or higher needed for viewing and printing). Other requirements to be considered are listed below.
- Figures should be comprehensible without reference to the main text.
- Figures should be prepared exclusively with black-and-white or grey-scale settings unless they are meant to be printed in colour. NOTE that different colours may produce the same shade of grey when printed in black-and-white.
- For preferred figure sizes please see pages of our journal.
- Figures must withstand size reduction.
- Figures, drawings and photographs must always be referred to as "Fig.", followed by a number.
- Refer to figures parenthetically; e.g. '... (Fig. 1)'. 'Fig. 1 shows ...' type statements should always be avoided when referring to figures presenting results.
- IF YOU REFER TO FIGURES PUBLISHED ELSEWHERE, THE REFERENCE SHOULD BE FOLLOWED BY 'fig.' (note that the lowercase f should be used) e.g.: Turchin et al. 2003: fig. 3.
- All captions should be submitted in the form of a separate file or placed at the end of the text file.
- Avoid fancy designs (especially 3-D).
- Avoid presenting data in pie-charts; present these data in tables or bar-charts.
- Use (greysacale) or solid (not pattern) fillings in computer-generated figures.
- Use the same font in all figures and within a figure. Arial is recommended. Freehand lettering is unacceptable.
- The axes in graphs should always be named and units, if needed, should be given in parentheses.
- Axes titles should be placed parallel to the respecive axis.
- Explain all graphic symbols (e.g. squares, triangles and so on) within the figure, not in the caption. A legend should be placed under the figure not next to it.
- Relate the size of letters, the thickness of lines (preferably uniform for all figure items), and the size of other parts of a figure, to the size of the figure itself.
- Identify parts of a composite figure with letters, not numbers.
- All figures should be referred to in the text in the proper numerical order (e.g., the first reference to Fig. 2 cannot precede the first reference to Fig. 1).
- If submitted as hardcopies, all figures (pictures, drawings and photographs) should be clearly identified on the reverse side with the name(s) of the author(s) and number of the figure. In doubtful cases, the top of the picture should be indicated with an arrow. Only high-quality laser (NOT INK-JET OR BUBBLE-JET) printouts or hand-drawings (originals or flawless copies) are accepted; freehand lettering is not allowed.
- Photographs for scanning should be provided as prints, or slides. [top]
- There is an extra charge for printing of illustrations in colour (inquire at the Editorial Office [email@example.com]).
- Referring to literature in the text [top]
- The references should be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. If an article has not been read by the author(s) but its conclusions found in another publication (secondary source), it may be cited in the text only as follows: e.g. Miller's (1972) results as cited in Ashworth (1996) ...
In the reference list, however, only the secondary source (i.e. Ashworth 1996) can be given.
- Mihok et al. (1985) or (Mihok et al. 1985).
- Kurtén and Anderson (1980) or (Kurtén & Anderson 1980).
- (Kurtén & Anderson 1980, Mihok et al. 1985).
- If you wish to indicate specific pages that contain information used in the paper, please give these page numbers after the reference (e.g. Hänninen 1990: 160).
- When referring to more than one publication, arrange them as follows (numbered in order of precedence):
- Year of publication (ascending),
- Alphabetical order for the same year of publication.
- The reference list [top]
- Arrange the references as follows (numbered in order of precedence):
- Alphabetical order and number of authors (ascending) for publications in which the first author is the same.
- Year of publication for publications by the same author or authors.
- Do not translate titles of entirely non-English publications written in Roman script (e.g. Finnish, Polish, German) but give the original title in foreign language. For publication written in non-Roman scripts (e.g. Cyrillic, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese), see below.
- In the references, journals' names can be either abbreviated or given in full. If you decide to give abbreviated names, use only official abbreviations as indicated by the journals itself; please note that an abbreviated word should always end in a full stop. For consistency reasons, a name of a particular journal if it appears more than once should always be given in the same way (i.e. either abbreviated or not).
- Article in a journal (the journal's title italicised and NOT ABBREVIATED); Please note that all the authors (regardless of their number) should be listed.
- Mihok, S., Schwartz, B. & Iverson, S. L. 1985: Ecology of red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi) in a gradient of gamma radiation. - - - Annales Zoologici Fennici 22: 257- -271.
- Cannell, M. G. R., Murray, M. B. & Sheppard, L. J. 1985: Frost avoidance by selection for late budburst in Picea sitchensis. - - - Journal of Applied Ecology 22: 931- -941.
- Hytönen, J. & Wall, A. 1997. Metsitettyjen turvepeltojen ja viereisten suometsien ravinnemäärät [Nutrient amounts of afforested peat fields and neighbouring peatland forests]. - - - Suo 48: 33-42. [In Finnish with English summary].
- Chapter in a publication (the publication's title italicised; Publisher's name and location should be given)
- Gerlach, S. A. 1978: Nematomorpha. - - - In: Illies, J. (ed.), Limnofauna Europaea. 2 ed.: 50- -53.
- Hänninen, H. 1990: Modelling dormancy release in trees from cool and temperate regions. - - - In: Dixon, R. K., Melhdahl, R. S., Ruak, G. A. & Warren, W. G. (eds.), Process modelling of forest growth responses to environmental stress: 159- -165. Timber Press Portland.
- Please note that (1) all the authors and editors (regardless of their number) should be listed, and (2) page numbers are those of the first page and the last page of the chapter that is refrerred to. If you wish to indicate specific pages that contain information used in the paper, please give these page numbers after the reference (e.g. Hänninen, H. 1990: 160).
- Book (the book's title italicised; Publisher's name and location should be given)
- Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. 1982: Population biology of infectious diseases. - - - Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
- Finnish Meteorol. Inst. 1989: Climatological data 1988. - - - Meteorol. Yearb. Finland 88.
- Referring to websites should be avoided (the site may not be accessible even in the near future or the information it contains may have been altered). As an exception publications available EXCLUSIVELY on the internet (printed version does not exist) can be referred to by their URL (Universal Resource Locator) or DOI (Digital Object Identifier) ONLY.
- Article or book printed entirely in Cyrillic: Give the authors' names both transliterated and [in brackets] in Cyrillic. Only English translation of the title should be given in brackets. If the title translation is not given in the publication please provide your own. Do not transliterate the title. Give the transliterated book publisher's name and place, or journal's title e.g.:
- Abramov, A. L. & Abramov, I. I. [Абрамов А.Л. & Абрамов И.И.] 1956: [Mnium immarginatum (Lindb.) Broth. from Mongolia]. - - - Bot. Zh. 41: 89- -91. [In Russian].
- Article or book printed entirely in non-Roman scripts other than Cyrillic (e.g. Arabic, Chinese, Japanese): Give the transliterated authors' names. Only English translation of the title should be given in brackets. If the title translation is not given in the publication please provide your own. Do not transliterate the title. Give the transliterated book publisher's name and place, or journal's title e.g.:
- Ho, T. N. 1985: [A study on the genus Gentiana of China, IV]. Bulletin of Botanical Research 5(4): 122. [In Chinese].
- Article or book printed in non-Roman scripts but with English summary or abstract: Give the transliterated authors' names. Only English translation of the title should be given. If the title translation is not given in the publication please provide your own. Do not transliterate the title. Give the transliterated book publisher's name and place, or journal's title e.g.:
- Korbut, V. V. 1989: Nest building of hooded crows. 1. Utilisation of different substrata. - - - Zool. Zh. 68: 88- -95. [In Russian with English summary].
- An article in press may be included in the references list. The name of the journal and the publication year (possibly also the volume number) must, however, be given. "[In press]" should be added at the end of the reference.
- Material in preparation, unpublished or submitted CANNOT be included in the reference list, and can only be referred to in the text using author's initial(s) and name followed by "unpubl." or "pers. comm.".
The first or appointed author will receive proofs of the article. Errors caused by editorial or linguistic alterations will be corrected free of charge. Other errors, especially if their correction affects the layout, may be corrected for a fee. We do not assume responsibility for misinterpretation of illegibly marked corrections.
The proofs with both attached forms (filled in) should be returned to the Editorial Office exclusively by mail within 48 hours of their arrival. Errors found after the proofs have been returned may not be corrected.